3 and No. The work was played again eight years later by the same forces; among those present in the audience was the youthful composer Benjamin Britten. It was the biggest success of Mahler’s composing career, a career which had few such successes. Mahler: Symphony no. . draws us ever upwards. This is followed by a demanding and dramatic aria for bass, the voice of Pater Profundus, who ends his tortured meditation by asking for God's mercy on his thoughts and for enlightenment. [65], Sir Adrian Boult's 1948 broadcast performance with the BBC Symphony Orchestra was recorded by the BBC, but not issued until 2009 when it was made available in MP3 form. [5] Here, the more austere poems of Friedrich Rückert replace the Wunderhorn collection as the primary influence; the songs are less folk-related, and no longer infiltrate the symphonies as extensively as before. (a note on Mahler's Eighth Symphony)", "The Complete Critical Edition – Future Plans", German and Latin texts, with English translation, International Music Score Library Project, Exploits and Opinions of Dr. Faustroll, Pataphysician, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Symphony_No._8_(Mahler)&oldid=996079872, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Una poenitentium (a penitent formerly known as Gretchen), This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 12:06. Mahler’s Symphony No. I was at one of the performances of this symphony under Solti’s baton that immediately preceded this recording. Despite the evident disparities within this juxtaposition, the work as a whole expresses a single idea, that of redemption through the power of love. Symphony No. [57] This new, less secure mood is carried through when "Infirma nostri corporis" resumes, this time without the choruses, in a subdued D minor echo of the initial invocation.[45]. Finale Scene from Goethe's Faust, (d) "Gerettet ist das edle Glied" (Choir of Angels, Choir of Blessed Boys, Younger Angels) is a popular song by Elizabeth Connell/Edith Wiens/Dame Felicity Lott/Trudeliese Schmidt/Nadine Denize/Richard Versalle/J | Create your own TikTok videos with the Mahler: Symphony No. das Unzulängliche,                         the incomplete Mahler’s Resurrection symphony is basically great, and we’re about to tell you precisely why. [60] The orchestra consists of: Mahler recommended that in very large halls, the first player in each of the woodwind sections should be doubled and that numbers in the strings should also be augmented. It was his "gift to the nation ... a great joy-bringer. Mahler conducting the final rehearsal of his Symphony #8, The last words of the final scene are below with an English translation. From about 1901, however, Mahler's music underwent a change in character as he moved into the middle period of his compositional life. Composition was only possible in the summer. [31] Once inspired by the Veni creator idea, Mahler soon saw the Faust poem as an ideal counterpart to the Latin hymn. The repeated chords in this section are reminiscent of Richard Wagner's Parsifal. [30] She is soon joined by other solo voices as the new theme is explored before the choirs return exuberantly, in an A♭ episode in which the soloists compete with the choral masses. This is one of the four scores of EA-Stp (plate number 9015), that Mahler received from the company on 8 September 1904 (Klemm 1979, p. 102, note 34/3). das Unbeschreibliche,                      the indescribable By Gustav Mahler Valery Gergiev & London Symphony Orchestra. [45][57] All forces combine again in the recapitulation of the "Veni creator" section in shortened form. [64] The International Gustav Mahler Society, founded in 1955, has as its main objective the production of a complete critical edition of all of Mahler's works. The vocal forces needed for this work are significant. He and Polish National Radio Symphony really know how Mahler should play. "Try to imagine the whole universe beginning to ring and resound. The structure of the work is unconventional; instead of the normal framework of several movements, the piece is in two parts. Rather than restating one idea after another in retrospect, Mahler weaves the musical strengths of his symphony all together into a larger, stronger fabric. [24][37], At the Amsterdam Mahler Festival in May 1920, Mahler's completed symphonies and his major song cycles were presented over nine concerts given by the Concertgebouw Orchestra and choruses, under Mengelberg's direction. Symphony No. ("Rejoice!") [4] The music of Mahler's many Wunderhorn settings is reflected in his Symphonies No. [20][n 3] Among the many distinguished figures present at the sold-out premiere were the composers Richard Strauss, Camille Saint-Saëns and Anton Webern; the writers Thomas Mann and Arthur Schnitzler; and the leading theatre director of the day, Max Reinhardt. Because it requires huge instrumental and vocal forces it is frequently called the “Symphony of a Thousand,” although the work is often performed with fewer than a thousand, and Mahler himself did not sanction the name. The two parts are unified by a common idea, that of redemption through the power of love, a unity conveyed through shared musical themes. [23], On the day following the Munich premiere Mahler led the orchestra and choruses in a repeat performance. Theodor W. Adorno found the piece weak, "a giant symbolic shell";[43] this most affirmative work of Mahler's is, in Adorno's view, his least successful, musically and artistically inferior to his other symphonies. [45][57], The second part of the symphony follows the narrative of the final stages in Goethe's poem—the journey of Faust's soul, rescued from the clutches of Mephistopheles, on to its final ascent into heaven. 8 ... and the finale to Part II is no less affecting. Michel Halasz, who recorded many good records for Naxos, is a great conductor, one of the most succesful of Hungary. Heard it yesterday for the first time. [13] It was completed in all its essentials by mid-August, even though Mahler had to absent himself for a week to attend the Salzburg Festival. Mahler’s music restores anything lost in translation. "[13] The orchestral forces required are, however, not as large as those deployed in Arnold Schoenberg's oratorio Gurre-Lieder, completed in 1911. At one point during rehearsals he turned to us and said, 'If, after my death, something doesn't sound right, then change it. [54], In composing his score, Mahler temporarily abandoned the more progressive tonal elements which had appeared in his most recent works. [52] The symphony begins with a single tonic chord in E♭ major, sounded on the organ, before the entry of the massed choirs in a fortissimo invocation: "Veni, veni creator spiritus". [47] The popularity of the work, and its heroic scale, meant that it was often used as a set piece on celebratory occasions; on 15 March 2008, Yoav Talmi led 200 instrumentalists and a choir of 800 in a performance in Quebec City, to mark the 400th anniversary of the city's foundation. A quieter passage of recapitulation leads to an orchestral coda before the children's chorus announces the doxology "Gloria sit Patri Domino" ("Glory be to God the Father"). 8 is known to exist. Impressed by the music, he nevertheless found the performance itself "execrable". Mahler 8 finale Solti CSO Leonard Bernstein and the Vienna Philharmonic recorded Mahler’s 8th before Solti’s was made. Meanwhile, Bruno Walter, Mahler's assistant at the Vienna Hofoper, was responsible for the recruitment and preparation of the eight soloists. [n 1] Throughout this time his practice was to leave Vienna at the close of the Hofoper season for a summer retreat, where he could devote himself to composition. [5], Mahler arrived at Maiernigg in June 1906 with the draft manuscript of his Seventh Symphony; he intended to spend time revising the orchestration until an idea for a new work should strike. Part 1 is based on the Latin text of a 9th-century Christian hymn for Pentecost, Veni creator spiritus (“Come, Creator Spirit”), and Part II is a setting of the words from the closing scene of Goethe’s Faust. By the summer of 1906, Mahler had been director of the Vienna Hofoper for nine years. [16], With its use of vocal elements throughout, rather than in episodes at or near the end, the work was the first completely choral symphony to be written. They have typical traditions of Mahler. hier wird's Ereignis;                      is here fulfilled; The last of Mahler's works that was premiered in his lifetime, the symphony was a critical and popular success when he conducted the Munich Philharmonic in its first performance, in Munich, on 12 September 1910. 9 as a defining human statement for its century. The last Sunday of June, Michael Tilson Thomas was to conduct Mahler’s colossal Eighth Symphony, known as “Symphony of a Thousand,” in San Francisco. [45] It has been suggested that the Veni creator theme is based on Maos Tzur, a Jewish song sung at Hanukkah. [19] In the US, Leopold Stokowski persuaded an initially reluctant board of the Philadelphia Orchestra to finance the American premiere, which took place on 2 March 1916. Gustav Mahler: Symphony No. The symphony’s final 6 minutes are an apotheosis to redemption, art, and human creativity. 8; 第8號交響曲; Симфонія № 8; Simfonija broj 8.; Symphonia 8; Symphonie nº 8 de Mahler; Sinfonia n. 8; سمفونی شماره هشت مالر; 8. Rights, Entitlements, and the Cost of Medical Care, How to Disable Yahoo’s Theft of Firefox’s Open a New Tab, Educational Thought of the Day – E Coli in Germany, Zinka Milanov – The Most Beautiful Voice in the World, Asymptomatic Subjects Do Not Transmit the Coronavirus, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Archives: Older posts and additional material. The final development episode is a hymnlike tenor solo and chorus, in which Doctor Marianus calls on the penitents to "Gaze aloft". 9 and the unfinished Symphony No. A superstitious man, he noted that two previous important Viennese symphonists, Beethoven and Schubert, had both died after completing nine symphonies; he believed that he, too, could not survive beyond a ninth. This gigantic symphony is sometimes referred to as the “Symphony of a Thousand,” a nickname that was invented by promoters for the premiere in Munich in September 1910, conducted by the composer. [49] This performance was its eighth in the history of the Proms. And this record does capture all the glory and emotion that its composer captured in his estival outpouring of genius. 5, No. 7 Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Claudio Abbado Abbado's account of Mahler's Seventh was always a highlight of his cycle and remains the ideal choice for collectors requiring a central interpretation in modern sound. After 1960 when the Mahler revival began it was performed with ever increasing frequency and had been recorded many times. [43] Deryck Cooke, on the other hand, compares Mahler's Eighth to Beethoven's Choral (Ninth) Symphony. Mahler 8 finale Bernstein Vienna Phil. "[12] In comments recorded by his biographer Richard Specht, Mahler makes no mention of the original four-movement plans. [40] Langford had commented on the British "not being very eager about Mahler",[39] and the Eighth Symphony was not performed in Britain until 15 April 1930, when Sir Henry Wood presented it with the BBC Symphony Orchestra. [51] In 1906 Mahler signed a contract with the Viennese publishing firm Universal Edition (UE), which thus became the main publisher of all his works. [51] The structure of Part II is more difficult to summarise, being an amalgam of many genres. Thereafter the music moves swiftly and powerfully to its climax, in which an offstage brass ensemble bursts forth with the "Accende" theme while the main orchestra and choruses end on a triumphant rising scale. Unfortunately, the recording of the symphony doesn’t capture the grandeur and sweep of Solti’s realization of Mahler’s titanic work heard in performance. This huge and complex work took less than 8 weeks to complete. hier wird's Ereignis;                      is here fulfilled; das Unbeschreibliche,                      the indescribable. 10—were all premiered after his death. 5 PREVIEW 5 Songs, 1 Hour, 11 Minutes. His First Symphony was such a … [19] Preparations began early in the year, with the selection of choirs from the choral societies of Munich, Leipzig and Vienna. The Symphony No. MAHLER - Symphony No 8 - Amazon.com Music. 8. 6 and No. But in sum, that C major Finale brings a bright conclusion to that masterpiece. 8 in E-flat major, "Channukah in Summer? Landmann's proposed sonata structure for the movement is based on a division, after an orchestral prelude, into five sections which he identifies musically as an exposition, three development episodes, and a finale. Gustav Mahler: Symphony No 8: Mixed Choir: Vocal Score Orchestra [Sheet music] Universal Edition. One reason for this has been the huge – even for Mahler – contrasts that it encompasses: from a first movement which seems to continue the atmosphere of the previous symphony, the ‘Tragic’ Sixth, to a finale that has been accused of excessive triumphalism, and which Mahler himself once … [22][20] Also in the audience was the 28-year-old British conductor Leopold Stokowski, who six years later would lead the first United States performance of the symphony. Conversely, it has also been compared—by Deryck Cooke—to Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. Judged on its clarity of detail and faithfulness to the score, this recording of Mahler's majestic Symphony No. Yet there are less tangible aspects to which the excellence of this performance must be attributed. Released February 8, 2011 ℗ 2011 London Symphony Orchestra Ltd. … Information from its description page there is shown below. [53] The unity between the two parts of the symphony is established, musically, by the extent to which they share thematic material. [22] However, the Munich premiere of the Eighth Symphony was an unqualified triumph;[25] as the final chords died away there was a short pause before a huge outbreak of applause which lasted for twenty minutes. draws us ever upwards. Sinfonie; ซิมโฟนีหมายเลข 8; Simfonija št. The wide melodic leaps in the Pater Profundus role present particular challenges to the bass soloist. The first note is as follows: The second note includes musical sketches for the Veni creator movement, and two bars in B minor which are thought to relate to the Caritas. The choice of these two texts was not arbitrary; Goethe, a poet whom Mahler revered, believed that Veni creator embodied aspects of his own philosophy, and had tra… It was his first major work that established his lifelong view of the beauty of afterlife and resurrection. Title “Symphony of a Thousand” Name Translations Симфония № 8; 8-a simfonio; Symphony No. Details. Finally, as the chorus concludes with "The eternal feminine draws us on high", the off-stage brass re-enters with a final salute on the Veni creator motif, to end the symphony with a triumphant flourish.[30][59]. [19][20] His youthful assistant Otto Klemperer remarked later on the many small changes that Mahler made to the score during rehearsal: "He always wanted more clarity, more sound, more dynamic contrast. [59] After Gretchen's entreaty, a solo of "limpid beauty" in Kennedy's words, an atmosphere of hushed reverence descends. This is a passage of great complexity, in the form of a double fugue involving development of many of the preceding themes, with constant changes to the key signature. Since Stokowski's version, at least 70 recordings of the symphony have been made by many of the world's leading orchestras and singers, mostly during live performances. Alles Vergängliche                         All that is ephemeral As a foundation for the whole, the first movement.” hier ist's getan;                          is here accomplished; das Ewig-Weibliche                         the Eternal Feminine. He told Specht that having chanced on the Veni creator hymn, he had a sudden vision of the complete work: "I saw the whole piece immediately before my eyes, and only needed to write it down as though it were being dictated to me. Mahler: Symphony No. [38] The music critic Samuel Langford, who attended the occasion, commented that "we do not leave Amsterdam greatly envying the diet of Mahler first and every other composer afterward, to which Mengelberg is training the music-lovers of that city. Of course, no recording can approach the impact that this symphony makes when heard live. The first performance was attended by, among others, Richard Strauss, Camille Saint-Saëns, Anton Webern, Thomas Mann,  Max Reinhardt, and Leopold Stokowski, who led the work’s American premiere 6 years later. However, Jonathan Carr suggests that there is evidence that not all the Viennese choristers reached the hall and the number of performers may therefore not have reached 1,000. Mahler had decided to use the song as the finale of his Third Symphony instead. zieht uns hinan. [51] Although the vast choral and orchestral forces employed suggest a work of monumental sound, according to critic Michael Kennedy "the predominant expression is not of torrents of sound but of the contrasts of subtle tone-colours and the luminous quality of the scoring". 8 "Symphony of a Thousand", Pt. 8 might have been his last. [52] Analysts, including Specht, Cooke and Paul Bekker, have identified Adagio, Scherzo and Finale "movements" within the overall scheme of Part II, though others, including La Grange and Donald Mitchell, find little to sustain this division. To Cooke, Mahler's is "the Choral Symphony of the twentieth century: like Beethoven's, but in a different way, it sets before us an ideal [of redemption] which we are as yet far from realising—even perhaps moving away from—but which we can hardly abandon without perishing". [22] Back at his hotel Mahler received a letter from Thomas Mann, which referred to the composer as "the man who, as I believe, expresses the art of our time in its profoundest and most sacred form". 1 'The Titan' [LP][Limited Edition] ... also the case that the Vienna Philharmonic brass get so excited as the Eternal Feminine draws them ever onward in the finale that they blast themselves somewhat out of tune. [30] The Mater Gloriosa then sings her only two lines, in the symphony's opening key of E♭ major, permitting Gretchen to lead the soul of Faust into heaven.[59]. Mahler made his living conducting. 8 in E-flat major by Gustav Mahler is one of the largest-scale choral works in the classical concert repertoire. [51][52] The choice of these two texts was not arbitrary; Goethe, a poet whom Mahler revered, believed that Veni creator embodied aspects of his own philosophy, and had translated it into German in 1820. [26], The symphony's duration at its first performance was recorded by the critic-composer Julius Korngold as 85 minutes. [34] Vienna itself had to wait until 1918 before the symphony was heard there. His remaining works—Das Lied von der Erde ("The Song of the Earth"), his Symphony No. 7 were written, all as purely instrumental works, portrayed by Mahler scholar Deryck Cooke as "more stern and forthright ..., more tautly symphonic, with a new granite-like hardness of orchestration". das Ewig-Weibliche                         the Eternal Feminine Frisch. To close our 2018–2019 season, John DeMain and the MSO partner with three choirs and eight opera singers May 3–5, 2019, to present one of the greatest musical feats in the classical repertoire, Mahler’s Symphony No. 2, No. The sobriquet A Symphony of a Thousand is an obvious one given the army commanded by its composer at its premiere. [48] In London on 16 July 2010 the opening concert of the BBC Proms celebrated the 150th anniversary of Mahler's birth with a performance of the Eighth, with Jiří Bělohlávek conducting the BBC Symphony Orchestra. The first 8 rows of the orchestra were boarded over to accommodate the large forces needed. Allegro - Allegro giocoso. [52] This acts as a transition to the finale, the Chorus Mysticus, which begins in E♭ major almost imperceptibly—Mahler's notation here is Wie ein Hauch, "like a breath". [59] The mood lightens with the entry of the angels and blessed boys (women's and children's choruses) bearing the soul of Faust; the music here is perhaps a relic of the "Christmas Games" scherzo envisioned in the abortive four-movement draft plan. In particular, the first notes of the Veni creator theme —, — dominate the climaxes to each part;[51] at the symphony's culmination, Goethe's glorification of "Eternal Womanhood" is set in the form of a religious chorale. The soloists are all in very good form and (in spite of a few 'rough' moments) the orchestra and chorus are committed and enthusiastic. ... Symphony No 8 ... volume at about the 4:00 minute mark as Haitink can at last let out all the pent up energy for a truly Heaven storming finale, The massed Brass choir is outstanding and the best I believe I've ever heard. [42], Mahler had joined the Hofoper as a staff conductor in April 1897, and had succeeded. In his "middle" compositional period after 1901, a change of style led him to produce three purely instrumental symphonies. The first children's chorus follows, in a joyful mood, as the music gathers force and pace. [32] Thus, the composer’s appropriation of Goethe for the Eighth Symphony’s finale necessitates that the singing persist through the entire piece. Overwhelming!! [45] This is the first of his works in which familiar fingerprints—birdsong, military marches, Austrian dances—are almost entirely absent. The Symphony No. 6 and No. 5: V. Rondo - Finale. 2 by Gustav Mahler, known as the Resurrection Symphony, was written between 1888 and 1894, and first performed in 1895.This symphony was one of Mahler's most popular and successful works during his lifetime. [32] The first issued recording of the complete symphony was Stokowski's Carnegie Hall performance with the New York Philharmonic and combined New York choirs on 9 April 1950. 4, No. [62] The full orchestral score of the Eighth Symphony was published by UE in 1912. 5, No. La Grange comments: "To give expression to his cosmic vision, it was ... necessary to go beyond all previously known limits and dimensions. [2] In these restful surroundings Mahler completed his Symphonies No. The exposition begins in near-silence; the scene depicted is that of a rocky, wooded mountainside, the dwelling place of anchorites whose utterances are heard in an atmospheric chorus complete with whispers and echoes. [6] During this period Symphonies No. Mahler 8 finale Solti CSO, Leonard Bernstein and the Vienna Philharmonic recorded Mahler’s 8th before Solti’s was made. Mitchell adds a caveat to this recollection: It is not in fact certain that more than 1,000 performers participated in the Munich premiere. The Eighth Symphony's two parts combine the sacred text of the 9th-century Latin hymn Veni creator spiritus with the secular text from the closing passages from Goethe's 19th-century dramatic poem Faust. The section is interrupted by a short orchestral interlude in which the low bells are sounded, adding a sombre touch to the music. 8 3 Today Gustav Mahler is universally recognized as one of the supreme masters of the symphony, but this status was hard-won, and, for the most part, posthumous. You have not only a right but a duty to do so. It requires 2 separate choirs and a choir of children together with 8 soloists and an orchestra of over 100 instruments. During the next three years, according to the calculations of Mahler's friend Guido Adler the Eighth Symphony received a further 20 performances across Europe. [51] The symphony's key is, for Mahler, unusually stable; despite frequent diversions into other keys the music always returns to its central E♭ major. [44] The composer-critic Robert Simpson, usually a champion of Mahler, referred to Part II as "an ocean of shameless kitsch. Mahler compared the first of these movements to Rembrandt’s “The Night Watch”; as historically reluctant as Mahler was to providing programmatic meaning to his work, he described the symphony’s plan to Swiss critic William Ritter this way: “Three night pieces; the finale, bright day. [10] These outlines show that Mahler had fixed on the idea of opening with the Latin hymn, but had not yet settled on the precise form of the rest. He soon regretted this involvement, writing of his fears that Gutmann would turn the performance into "a catastrophic Barnum and Bailey show". [59], Thereafter the key changes frequently as a chorus of penitent women petition the Mater for a hearing; this is followed by the solo entreaties of Magna Peccatrix, Mulier Samaritana and Maria Aegyptiaca. He characterises the alto solos as brief and unremarkable; however, the tenor solo role in Part II is both extensive and demanding, requiring on several occasions to be heard over the choruses. [59], The first phase of development begins as a women's chorus of the younger angels invoke a "happy company of blessed children"[n 6] who must bear Faust's soul heavenwards. And this record does capture all the glory and emotion that its composer captured in his estival outpouring of genius. 7, his Rückert songs and his song cycle Kindertotenlieder ("Songs on the Death of Children"). Mahler had been convinced from the start of the work's significance; in renouncing the pessimism that had marked much of his music, he offered the Eighth as an expression of confidence in the eternal human spirit. The blessed boys receive the soul gladly; their voices are joined by Doctor Marianus (tenor), who accompanies their chorus before breaking into a rapturous E major paean to the Mater Gloriosa, "Queen and ruler of the world!". The hut in which Mahler wrote the symphony is above the title. But neither of these texts demands a “symphonic” context in which the composer treat the voices—whether choral or solo—as “instruments” of … Two notes in Mahler's handwriting dating from June 1906 show that early schemes for the work, which he may not at first have intended as a fully choral symphony, were based on a four-movement structure in which two "hymns" surround an instrumental core. "[43] Mahler biographer Jonathan Carr finds much of the symphony "bland", lacking the tension and resolution present in the composer's other symphonies. [59], In the second part of the development, the entry of the Mater Gloriosa is signalled in E major by a sustained harmonium chord, with harp arpeggios played over a pianissimo violin melody which La Grange labels the "love" theme. [61], La Grange draws attention to the notably high tessitura for the sopranos, for soloists and for choral singers. [50], The Eighth Symphony's two parts combine the sacred text of the 9th-century Latin hymn Veni creator spiritus with the secular text from the closing passages from Goethe's 19th-century dramatic poem Faust. "[n 2] Although amendments and alterations were subsequently carried out to the score, there is very little manuscript evidence of the sweeping changes and rewriting that occurred with his earlier symphonies as they were prepared for performance. hier ist's getan;                          is here accomplished; [59], The sound rises in a gradual crescendo, as the solo voices alternately join or contrast with the chorus. Mahler subtly anticipates the mood of the finale in two contrasting trio sections, yet it is the awesome serenity of the third movement’s variations that points the way forward, setting up the key of the finale with a cathartic explosion of sound in E major towards the end, symbolising the gates of Heaven opening up. 8 ranks as one of the most exacting and authoritative ever made. [56], Mitchell describes Part I as resembling a giant motet, and argues that a key to its understanding is to read it as Mahler's attempt to emulate the polyphony of Bach's great motets, specifically Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied ("Sing to the Lord a new song"). The fusion of song and symphony had been a characteristic of Mahler's early works. La Grange enumerates a chorus of 850 (including 350 children), 157 instrumentalists and the eight soloists, to give a total of 1,015. zieht uns hinan. Been recorded many good records for Naxos, is what is lost in translation 8 ; 8-a ;. Choral singers than 8 weeks to complete premiere Mahler led the orchestra boarded! Section in shortened form complete recording of the most exacting mahler symphony 8 finale authoritative ever made excellence of this was. Of orchestra and voice in a joyful mood, as the solo voices alternately join or contrast the! 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Dances—Are almost entirely absent in this section are reminiscent of Richard Wagner 's Parsifal Symphony instead it stuck! Wagner 's Parsifal 62.95 GBP - Sold by Musicroom UK Shipment: stock!

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