PN Junction Diode VI Characteristics in Reverse Bias Therefore, this is all about PN junction diode in zero bias, forward bias and reverse bias conditions and VI characteristics of PN junction diode. V-I Characteristics of PN Junction Diode. Voltage-Current Characteristics of a PN Junction Diode To draw the voltage-current (V- I) characteristics of the PN junction diode and to determine its knee voltage and forward resistance. A semiconductor may … The PN-junction diode is connected in forward biased by keeping the key K close and keeping the double throw switch in position one. PN junction diodes are made with semiconductors such as Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si). When, V is positive the junction is forward biased, and when V is negative, the junction is reverse biased. But when V exceeds V TH, the current suddenly becomes very high. This current attains its maximum or saturation value immediately and is independent of the applied reverse voltage, It depends on the temperature of the junction diode. The resistance of a diode is the function of the operating current. The difference in concentration with distance (i.e. After that many types of diodes are invented. PN junction is formed by bringing a P type material in contact with N type material. V-I characteristics of P-N Junction Diode or Practical Diode. As a result of this, holes in the p-region and electrons in the region cannot cross through the junction. The horizontal line in the below figure represents the amount of voltage applied across the p-n junction diode whereas the vertical line represents the amount of current flows in the p-n junction diode. Forward V-I characteristics of p-n junction diode If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type semiconductor and the negative terminal of the battery is connected to the n-type semiconductor, the diode is said to be in forward bias. The 'P' side of a pn junction diode is always positive terminal and is called as anode. PN Junction diode characteristics provide us the information about the habitual working of the diode. The battery voltage at which the forward current starts increasing rapidly is known as  knee voltage (Vk) or threshold voltage or cut in voltage (figure 11). A diode is a two-terminal unidirectional power electronics device. A PN Junction Diode is a two-terminal semiconductor device. Avalanche break down:-If both p-side and n-side of the diode are lightly doped, depletion region at the junction widens. It allows the flow of electric current only in forward biased condition, in the reverse-biased it blocks the flow of electric current. It is a special type of diode which operates in the breakdown region. Semiconductor PN Junction Diode is the simplest semiconductor device. When the battery voltage is zero (1.e. Diode Characteristics by Kenneth A. Kuhn Oct. 3, 2007, rev. The variation of current with the applied voltage across the  junction diode gives the characteristics of p-n junction diode. The junction of N and P semiconductors is free of charge carriers; hence the region is called as depletion region. The most basic device is diode. This is because the minority carriers density responsible for reverse saturation current increases with increase in temperature. The electric field exerts force on electrons in p-region to move towards n-side and also exerts force on holes in n-region to move towards p-side, Thus, a drift current begins to flow due to the drifting of holes and electrons across the junction. Construction and Working of PN Junction Diode. The V-I characteristics or voltage-current characteristics of the p-n junction diode is shown in the below figure.The horizontal line in the below figure represents the amount of voltage applied across the p-n junction diode whereas the vertical line represents the amount of current flows in the p-n junction diode. 3. Break Down Diode is Semiconductor diode. The following are the vital characteristics of a PN junction region (junction diode): A semiconductor consists of two types of mobile charge carriers: electrons, and holes. 2. V-I Characteristics stands for voltage and current. Normally the voltage is taken along the x-axis and current along y-axis. When a P-type material is brought in contact with N- type material electrons and holes start recombining near the junction. APPARATUS REQUIRED PN junction diode (IN4007), variable DC power supply, milli-ammeter, micro-ammeter, voltmeter, resistance and connecting wires. (1), it is a two-terminal device where the terminal A stands for … In a P-N junction Diode, we will consider the p-n junction with a forward-bias voltage employed. The Zener diode is made up of silicon material. We have also learned about diffusion current What is a Diode and How does it Work. The circuit diagram to study reverse bias characteristic is shown in Figure 12. At ElectronicsPost.com I pursue my love for teaching. At some forward voltage  i.e 0.7 V for Si and 0.3 V for Ge, the potential barrier is almost eliminated and the current starts flowing in the circuit. P region has a high concentration of holes and N region contains a large number of electrons. Characteristics of a p-n junction diode It generally shows the relation between bias voltage and current of a diode. The V-I characteristics of a diode can be forward or reverse. Thus, a small current begins to flow. Potential barrier prevents the movement of electrons from n region to p region and movement of holes from p region to n region through the junction. The PN junction region of a Junction Diode has the following important characteristics: Semiconductors contain two types of mobile charge carriers, “Holes” and “Electrons”. These are the easiest and basic diodes available in and use PN junction characteristics like depletion layer, diffusion and drift current. The majority carriers in  p-region and  n-region respectively are attracted by the negative and positive terminals of the battery. From the forward characteristics, it can be noted that at first i.e. The circuit connection for determining the V-I characteristics of a pn junction is shown in the figure below. ElectronicsPost.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, and we get a commission on purchases made through our links. It may be noted that the forward characteristics shifts upwards with increase in temperature. The effective barrier potential increases to  (Vb + V ) and also the thickness of the depletion layer increases (9B).The Junction resistance  increases in reverse bias. I am an M.Tech in Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering. Learn more about how pn junction diode works and its VI characteristics here Physics practical to study about PN junction diode and obtain its V-I (voltage, current) characteristics until breakdown voltage and plot graph with diagram. As a result of this, large electron-hole pairs are produced which diffuse through the junction and hence there is a sudden rise in the reverse current (figure 13). The P-N junction diode is a two-terminal device. PN Junction Diode VI Characteristics. Volt-ampere (V-I) characteristics of a pn junction or semiconductor diode is the curve between voltage across the junction and the current through the circuit. There is small current due te the minority carriers. In reverse bias condition , the p-type of the pn junction is connected to the negative terminal and n-type is connected to the positive terminal of the external voltage. There is a small reverse saturation  current (i.e., a current which cannot increase anymore) due to sweep of the minority carriers in p-region and n-region. In this article we discusses about different Types of Break Down diodes, Characteristics and their Applications. One of the most common applications of the diode is the pn junction. Chapter 6. Fig.1 shows the circuit arrangement for determining the V-I … This potential difference adds to the potential barrier (Vb). Explain forward biasing in a p-n junction diode with the help of diagrams. Sept. 3, 2009, draft –more to come Introduction This paper examines various electrical characteristics of a typical silicon junction diode. The basic device formed from this p-n junction is of two terminals. When P-n junction is reverse biased, the majority carriers in and a region are repelled away from the junction. This results in increased potential barrier at the junction. This electric field is directed from positive charge to negative charge across the junction. The holes are positively charged while the electrons negatively charged. Semiconductor diode consists of a p-n junction having metallic contacts at both the ends as shown in figure 7(A). This space charge region on both sides of the p-n junction taken together is called depletion layer or region because it has no mobile charges (Figure 4). V-I Characteristics, Working &Why is Zener Diode used a voltage regulator? In this article, we will focus on the i-vcharacteristics of the junction diode, specifically the pn junction. The potential barrier of height Vb of unbiased p-n junction is also shown in the figure. Opposes only the the majority carriers in p-region and n-region respectively are by! 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